Intel Processor Names and Numbers

Understanding Intel® Processor Naming Conventions

The processor number is just one of several factors—along with processor brand, system configurations, and system-level benchmarks—to be considered when choosing the right processor for your computing needs.

Below is the complete guide on how to distinguish product brands, brand modifiers, generations, SKUs, and product lines from Intel® processor names.

Brand

The Intel naming scheme starts with the processor’s brand—the overall product line the processor was created for. Today, the most common Intel® processor names begin with Intel® Core™, Intel® Pentium®, and Intel® Celeron®. Intel® Pentium® and Intel® Celeron® processors are economical product lines created for price-conscious consumers. Intel® Core™ processors bring faster performance and additional features not available in Intel® Pentium® and Intel® Celeron® models.

Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors offer a higher level of performance for servers and workstations. Learn more about Intel® Xeon® Scalable processor numbers.

Brand Modifier

Intel® Core™ processor series includes a brand modifier before the remaining parts of the model number. Intel® Pentium® and Intel® Celeron® processors do not use this naming convention. Today, the Intel® Core™ processor series includes the brand modifiers i3, i5, i7, and i9. Higher brand modifier numbers offer a higher level of performance and, in some cases, additional features (like Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology). For example, within a given processor family, an i7 will outperform an i5, which will outperform an i3.

Generation Indicator

After the brand and brand modifier comes the processor’s generation indicator. Intel® processor generations are identified in the processor number in all Intel® Core™ processor brands. In a four-digit processor number, the first digit typically represents the generation. For example, a processor with the digits 9800 is a 9th gen processor, while one labeled 8800 is 8th gen technology.

For 10th Generation Intel® Core™ processors, the Intel naming scheme differs slightly (see below). However, the first two digits in the product number will be 10.

SKU Numeric Digits

For the majority of Intel® processors, the final three digits of the product number are the SKU. SKUs are generally assigned in the order in which processors in that generation and product line are developed. A higher SKU within otherwise-identical processor brands and generations will generally have more features. However, SKU numbers are not recommended for comparison across different generations or product lines.

Product Line Suffix

The SKU suffix is another key indicator of the processor’s capabilities. These remaining differences are indicated by a letter-based product line suffix. For example, within the Intel® Core™ processor series, U indicates a processor that has been designed for power-efficient laptops or 2 in 1s. Meanwhile, XE indicates an “extreme edition” processor for desktops designed for maximum performance.

Intel® Core™ Processors

To learn more about Intel® Core™ processor numbers, refer to the appropriate generation below.

10th and 11th Generation Intel® Core™ Processor Family

10th and 11th Generation Intel® Core™ processors designed for laptops and 2 in 1s that are generally thin, light, and for everyday usage have two different naming conventions. To understand which type of processor you’re looking at, simply check for the presence of a “G” in the processor number, just before the final digit. Processor numbers with a “G” are optimized for graphics-based usages and include newer graphics technology.

SKUs with a “G” consist of a two-digit generation indicator (“10” or "11"), then a two-digit SKU, followed by a two-character alphanumeric suffix. The suffix indicates the level of graphics offered by the processor; higher numbers (e.g., G7) indicate improved graphics performance relative to lower numbers (e.g., G1).

10th and 11th Generation Intel® Core™ processors without a “G” also start with “10” as a generation indicator and are followed by a three-digit SKU (five total digits in a row). These digits are followed by a single-letter suffix (U, Y, H, K, etc.) that is similar to previous-generation naming conventions and indicates the level of power consumption and type of device they are designed for.

6th to 9th Generation Intel® Core™ Processor Families

Processor numbers for 6th through 9th Generation Intel® Core™ processors start with a single digit indicating the generation number, followed by a three-digit SKU number.

When applicable, an alpha suffix appears at the end of the processor name, representing the processor line. Intel® processor letters following the SKU may contain an additional one or two letters.

Intel® Core™ Processor Suffixes

To understand what a processor suffix indicates, consult the list below. Not all processor generations or families include all product suffixes.

 

SuffixMeaning
G1-G7Graphics level (processors with new integrated graphics technology only)
EEmbedded
FRequires discrete graphics
GIncludes discrete graphics on package
HIncludes discrete graphics on package
HKIncludes discrete graphics on package
HQHigh performance optimized for mobile, quad core
KUnlocked
SSpecial edition
TPower-optimized lifestyle
UMobile power efficient
YMobile extremely low power

Intel® Pentium® Processors

Names for Intel® Pentium® Silver processors include a single-letter prefix, followed by a four-digit SKU number. Intel® Pentium® Gold processors have no letter prefix and contain a SKU followed by a suffix.

Higher numbers within the processor class or family generally indicate improved features and benchmarks, including cache, clock speed, or front-side bus. Intel® Pentium® Gold and Silver processors are distinguished by the overall CPU performance. Intel® Pentium® Gold processors are optimized for performance, while Intel® Pentium® Silver processors are optimized for cost.

Intel® Celeron® Processors

Names for Intel® Celeron® processors have two different formats. Some Intel® Celeron® processors have a three-digit numerical SKU with no alphabetical prefix. Others include a single-letter prefix followed by a four-digit SKU. Higher numbers within the processor class or family typically indicate improved features and benchmarks, including cache, clock speed, or front-side bus.

Wi-Fi 5 (AC) vs. Wi-Fi 6 (AX)

Wait, another new wireless standard?

Just when everyone has hopped onboard 802.11ac, we now have a new wireless standard to contend with. But if 802.11ax is all that it is made out to be, the switch would be worth it.

Shortcomings of 802.11ac

802.11ac routers are fast but they are not ideal for situations where there are many, many client devices.

802.11ac does a number of things well but it is bad at some others. Speed, for instance, isn’t its biggest problem. 802.11ac can actually deliver very fast Wi-Fi speeds. The fastest 802.11ac routers today can deliver speeds of up to 2,167Mbps on a single 5GHz network.

The biggest problem that it faces is congestion that occurs because of the sheer number of connected devices that we have today. Today, the average number of connected devices per household is around 20. This includes devices like your desktops, notebooks, phones, tablets, webcams, TVs, media streaming boxes, smart home sensors, and more. And analysts believe it could double in the next two years. Just ask yourselves, how many devices do you really have connected to your router via Wi-Fi?

The high number of connected devices puts a severe strain on a router’s performance. This is because today's routers can typically only transmit or receive signals at any one time. This is why performance degrades rapidly as more devices are connected to the router. The router has to divide its time up amongst more connected devices and the ‘wait’ to get served by the router becomes longer as more and more devices join the network. This is why Wi-Fi slows to a crawl in crowded spaces like offices, airports, and stadiums.

Doesn’t MU-MIMO in 802.11ac solve this?

MU-MIMO is a step in the right direction but it has severe limitations.

  

Not exactly. MU-MIMO has some severe limitations. But a quick primer: MU-MIMO (Multi-User Multiple Input) was introduced as part of an update to 802.11ac. It improves congestion by allowing the router to communicate with multiple output devices simultaneously. But it has some limitations. It requires MU-MIMO compatible routers and clients, it only works on the downlink, and it can only communicate with up to three devices simultaneously. This is probably good enough for most homes but it is woefully insufficient for public use where they can be hundreds if not thousands of devices.

So how does 802.11ax solve this?

802.11ax is all about increasing capacity rather than increasing peak speed.

 

802.11ax seeks to improve Wi-Fi in two ways. One is to increase the speed of each stream and the second is to make each router more efficient by allowing it to communicate with multiple devices simultaneously.

Like 802.11ac, 802.11ax will operate in the 5GHz spectrum. It will support up to 160MHz channels giving each 802.11ax stream a maximum theoretical bandwidth of 3.5Gbps. This compares favorably to the maximum bandwidth of a single 802.11ac stream which is just 866Mbps. 802.11ax routers that support up to four streams could, therefore, provide a maximum theoretical bandwidth of up to 14Gbps! Real-world performance would probably be nothing close to these figures but this is still a massive improvement over existing 802.11ac routers.

 

OFDMA chops up each channel into smaller sub-channels so that the router can transmit to multiple devices simultaneously.

 

Arguably, the biggest improvement of 802.11ax is its ability to accommodate multiple client devices simultaneously. This is done using OFDMA digital modulation technology or orthogonal frequency division multiple access as it's known in full form. This particular technology comes from the world of LTE and is the reason why LTE works so well. How often does your smartphone's reception become unresponsive? To put it simply, OFDMA chops up each Wi-Fi channel into hundreds of smaller sub-channels, each with a slightly different frequency. The signals are then turned orthogonally so that they can be stacked on top of each other and de-multiplexed. With OFDMA, a single channel can accommodate as many as 30 clients.

 

ODFMA addresses the problem of congestion by taking chopping up channels so that multiple devices can be served simultaneously.

In plain English, it simply means that 802.11ax routers can combine transmissions and send data to multiple devices simultaneously. Compared to most 802.11ac routers which can only send data to a single device at any one time, you can see that 802.11ax routers are going to be a lot more efficient.Here's an analogy. Today's routers are akin to delivery trucks that can only carry a single package and therefore can only make one delivery per trip. 802.11ax routers, on the other hand, are delivery trucks that can carry multiple packages and can, therefore, make multiple deliveries every trip. No prizes for guessing which is more effective.

What about MU-MIMO in 802.11ax?

802.11ax will support MU-MIMO too and it will do so on both downlink and uplink transmissions.

How is MU-MIMO different from OFDMA?

OFDMA allows far more efficient use of channel bandwidth whereas MU-MIMO allows the router to dedicate separate spatial streams to different devices. The two technologies can work together in 802.11ax routers to allow it to serve much more devices than your typical 802.11ac router can.

Range Comparison between ac and ax?

No matter what, the range of 2.4GHz networks will always be greater.

802.11ax works in the 5GHz and 2.4GHz spectrum so range would be largely better than 802.11ac simply because of support of 2.4GHz. In the faster 5GHz spectrum, we should see 802.11ax provide about the same range as 802.11ac - 5GHz waves can only travel so far because the laws of physics are immutable. Let’s not forget, with the right mix of devices you can still achieve very good speeds over 2.4GHz.

Should I upgrade to 802.11ax?

Contact Us to find out more or schedule a site visit so that our network specialist can advise you accordingly.

Cable Distance Limits

Cables will always have some sort of “maximum signal” rating, depending on the type of the cable. For ethernet cables, it will be the maximum upload/download speed. For HDMI, it will be the maximum resolution of the video. And so on and so forth for other cables. Any type of “maximum” rating should be taken with a grain of salt.

Those ratings are the best possible rating the cable is capable of under theoretical, perfect conditions. For example, modern HDMI cables are all rated for 4k. But if the HDMI cable is running through a coupler, users will almost certainly not get 4k. Each time a signal passes through a connection, even just connecting a cable to something like a TV or computer, the signal quality degrades a little. Using devices like extenders and couplers will make the signal weaker; for example, coupling a 10’ cable to a 5’ cable will result in a weaker signal than just using a single 15’ cable.

Another key factor for signal quality is the distance of the cable. The further a signal has to travel, the more it will degrade by the time it gets from Point A to Point B. Going back to our HDMI example, a 15’ cord will give a clearer image than a 50’ cable. It is possible to get around this issue using an extender/booster. Some cables are also more subject to this issue than others, so doing a little research before running a particularly long cable never hurts.

When using cables with two different ends, the distance limit will be subject to whichever type of connector has the shorter maximum distance. For example, a standalone HDMI cable can go up to 65’ while a standard DisplayPort cable can go up to 15’. Therefore, an HDMI to DisplayPort cable will be stuck at 15’ for its maximum length.

Other factors such as electromagnetic interference or radio wave interference can also come into play. If the cable will be run near electrical cords or in an area near something like a radio tower, these issues can be mitigated by using shielded cables.

With this information in mind, remember that the rest of this article highlights the maximum distance a cable can run and still work. Some of these numbers are not officially acknowledged as industry standards, but real-world experience has taught us what to look for.

Cable Distance Limits - Data

Cable Type (Data)Distance Limit (Meter)Distance Limit (Feet)
Ethernet100 M328 Feet
USB (Passive)4.5 M15 Feet
USB (Passive + Active)29 M95 Feet
USB (Ethernet Extension)61 M200 Feet
Firewire72 M236 Feet
Serial Cable (Standard)15 M49 Feet
Serial Cable (With Signal Degradation)60 M197 Feet
Single-Mode Fiber OpticNo Practical LimitNo Practical Limit
OM1 Multimode Fiber Optic300 M984 Feet
OM2 Multimode Fiber Optic600 M1968 Feet
OM3 Multimode Fiber Optic300 M984 Feet
OM4 Multimode Fiber Optic550 M1804 Feet

Ethernet
There are a few different versions of ethernet cable, but they all have a maximum distance of 100 meters (328 feet). It should be noted that Cat7 cable has harsher distance limits than Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a. Cat7 gets advertised for its 100 Gbps speed, but that will only work for distances up to 15 meters (slightly over 49 feet). Beyond that, it drops to the same 10 Gbps speed of Cat6 and Cat6a (although it still retains its superior 850 Mhz bandwidth).

USB

Passive (standard) USB cables have a maximum length of 15’. This limit can be overcome by using active USB extension cables. The active cables contain a microchip repeater that bypasses the normal 15’ limit of passive cables.

When daisy-chaining USB cables, there can be no more than 15’ of passive cable total. If you have a 10’ passive USB cable and try to attach a passive 10’ extension cord to it, the cable will not work. However, using a 5’ passive extension would work because the total amount of passive cable would only be 15’. These passive/active rules hold true for all the different types of USB cables.

An extender balun allows users to use an ethernet cable as an extension for USB. Different extenders have different maximum distance ratings but generally range somewhere from 150’ to 200’.

Firewire

FireWire has a maximum length of 72 meters (236 feet). Individual cables are only manufactured up to 4.5 meters (14.8 feet) long; going further than that means the cables must be daisy-chained together. A maximum of 16 cables can be used in a single chain.

Serial Cable

Serial cables primarily consist of DB9, DB15, DB25, and DB37. They are also called RS-232, although that term usually refers to DB9 specifically. All of these have a maximum individual length of 15 meters (slightly over 49 feet). Extension cords can be used but past the 15-meter length, the signal will start to degrade. At 30 meters, the signal will have half the normal strength. At 60 meters, ¼ the normal strength. Going beyond 60 meters is not recommended.

Single-Mode Fiber Optic

Single-mode fiber can run for many kilometers before it stops working. Unless the cable is being lain long-distance for a telecom company, distance limits should never be an issue for single-mode fiber.

OM1 Multimode Fiber Optic

OM1 is the basic version of multi-mode cable, being able to maintain 1GB data speeds for up to 300 meters.

OM2 Multimode Fiber Optic

OM2 has the same data transmission speed as OM1 but doubles its maximum length for 600 meters total.

OM3 Multimode Fiber Optic

OM3 has the same 300-meter distance limit as OM1 but is also capable of transmitting data ten times faster at 10GB.

OM4 Multimode Fiber Optic

OM4 carries a 10GB up to 550 meters, providing a distance upgrade to OM3 (similar to how OM2 has the same speed but a greater maximum length than OM1).

Cable Distance Limits - Audio Only

Cable Type (Audio Only)Distance Limit (Meter)Distance Limit (Feet)
2.5MM / 3.5MM (Regular)45 M150 Feet
3.5MM (With Extender)76 M250 Feet
XLR (Official)30M100 Feet
XLR (Theoretical)300 M1000 Feet
Optical Toslink 15 M49 Feet
Speaker WireSee Detailed Table BelowSee Detailed Table Below

2.5MM / 3.5MM
2.5mm, 3.5mm (also called headphone cables), and ¼” audio cables have a maximum distance of 150’ on average. Off-the-shelf, standard audio cables will be rated with 150’ in mind. It is possible to go further by custom-making something using thicker cable than usual. The lower the AWG, the greater the distance you can go.

3.5mm can go up to 250’ by using a balun, which allows ethernet cable to be used as an extension.

XLR

Practically, an XLR cable can run for 100’ before it starts running into problems. Not problems with the signal quality, but problems with having to manage a massive physical cable. XLR is usually used with microphones, amplifiers, or similar equipment. With the right equipment, a boosted and shielded XLR cable could run upwards of 1000’ without losing signal quality. Keep in mind that the further the cable runs, the less likely this will go off without a hitch

Optical Toslink

Toslink signals are just as limited by the equipment they are connected to as the cable itself. Low-quality and older cables may only support optical signals up to 5 or 10 meters. Modern Toslink typically runs 15 meters, although some brand-new electronics (mainly computers and satellite receivers) can use up to 30 meters. If extra distance is needed, do not buy the least expensive Toslink cables you can find (you will get what you pay for).

Speaker Wire

Speaker wire is a bit more complicated than other cables when it comes to distance limits. Depending ohms and AWG of the cable, the maximum distance changes. The chart below provides a simple conversion.

Wire Gauge4 ohms6 ohms8 ohms
22 AWG6 Feet9 Feet12 Feet
20 AWG10 Feet15 Feet20 Feet
18 AWG16 Feet24 Feet32 Feet
16 AWG24 Feet36 Feet48 Feet
14 AWG40 Feet60 Feet80 Feet
12 AWG60 Feet90 Feet120 Feet
10 AWG100 Feet150 Feet200 Feet

Cable Distance Limits - Video Only

Cable Type (Video Only)Distance Limit (Meter)Distance Limit (Feet)
S-Video45 M150 Feet
S-Video (With Extender)198 M650 Feet
VGA45 M150 Feet
VGA (With Extender)198 M650 Feet
DVI (Digital)15 M49 Feet
DVI (Analog)5 M16 Feet

S-Video

S-video is an older type of connection, now considered obsolete. Newer electronics are not built with s-video included, but this older technology had plenty of time to be developed in its heyday. When using an older TV, VCR, or other electronic, 150 feet will be the distance limit.

With an extender balun, ethernet cables can be used to extend s-video up to 650’. Keep in mind that a single ethernet cable can only go up to 328’. If extending the S-video past that, ethernet extensions will also be needed.

VGA

VGA is an analog signal and will get weaker over longer distances. For high-quality video, the maximum recommended distance is 25 feet. From 26-100’, mid-level quality video will be received. Past 100’, the video resolution will be low-quality.

Using a balun, ethernet can be used as an extension cable to allow VGA to go up to 650’. Keep in mind that individual ethernet lines can only go 328’, so anything past that will require ethernet extensions as well.

DVI

For maximum signal quality, DVI cables will work up to 5 meters. 5 meters is also the maximum length for DVI-A (analog) cables. The 5-meter limit extends to DVI-I (integrated) since it is capable of analog as well as digital. Any distance from 6 to 15 meters will result in lower signal quality but is available for DVI-D (digital) cables.

Whether a DVI cable is single-link or dual-link does not affect the maximum distance limit. However, dual-link cables have higher bandwidth and will suffer less degradation over longer distances.

Cable Distance Limits - Audio / Video

Cable Type (Audio / Video)Distance Limit (Meter)Distance Limit (Feet)
Composite RCA30 M100 Feet
Composite RCA (With Extender)76 M250 Feet
Component RCA30 M100 Feet
HDMI (Standard)19 M65 Feet
HDMI (Ethernet Extender)114 M375 Feet
HDMI (Fiber Optic Extender)300 M1000 Feet
Display Port7 M25 Feet
Mini Display Port4 M15 Feet

Component RCA

Component RCA (usually just called “component”) is the type of RCA with five cables: red & white for audio and red, blue, and green for video. The quality of the cable makes a big difference in the quality of the image. Well-made component cables can go up to 100’ while retaining HD quality. However, the maximum recommended distance to guarantee HD quality is 16’. Going past 16’ could result in standard definition video, with the odds of lower quality increasing as the cable gets longer.

HDMI

While there are various types of HDMI connections (regular, Mini, Micro), they are all subject to the same distance limits. However, types of HDMI connected to smaller devices like cell phones and tablets are generally only available in shorter lengths since those devices are usually left close to the TV or monitor they are connected to.

The quality of the cable will determine the maximum distance. Basic cables, for example, can only go up to 20’. Mid-grade HDMI goes up to 50’ while the top quality cables go up to 65’. When going beyond 50’ on a single cable, issues with image quality may start to crop up. In these instances, joining two cables together with a booster is the easiest course of action. When trying to maintain a 4k signal, aim at keeping the cable under 16’. Going past that limit can still provide an HD signal, but not necessarily a 4k one.

If a booster is not enough, using a balun extender will allow ethernet cable to be used to extend the HDMI signal. Different baluns have different maximum lengths so be sure to select one that works with your specific set-up.

In extreme cases, multimode LC fiber cable can be used with a special balun that will run the HDMI signal for up to 1000’.

Display Port

Recent innovations have allowed DisplayPort cables to extend to 25’, with the old limitation being 15’. Unless you have a DisplayPort cable that is very new, 15’ is likely the maximum distance on it. For Mini DisplayPort, 15’ is still the hard cap on its distance limit. The 15’ limit also applies to DisplayPort cables that go to other formats (HDMI, DVI, VGA).

All you need to know about UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply)

What is a UPS?

An uninterruptible power supply is a special device, usually located between the computer and a wall outlet to prevent data loss in case of a power loss. This backup power supply provides protection for your computer and battery backup that helps save your data by keeping your computer running without any interruption in case of a over-voltage, brownout and blackout. UPS also provides protection from sags, surges and spikes.

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Understanding Different RAID Levels

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As a business owner, you have many features to consider when choosing the right system and infrastructure for your critical online applications. One of the features you have to consider when choosing the right server for your business is whether to enable RAID on your system, but more importantly, what type of RAID to choose to fit your technical needs. Below we will go through all the pros and cons of each RAID level and give suggestions on which type to choose for your set up.

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All You Need To Know About RAM

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There's a lot more to monitors than that - and although the choices may feel by-and-large identical, there are minute differences in terminology that can make a world of difference in your monitor purchase.

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Intel Core i3 vs i5 vs i7 – Which is right for you?

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